Caulfeild Family

Capt. Sir Toby Caulfeild 1st Baron Charlemont

Toby CaulfeildAge: 61 years15651627

Name
Toby Caulfeild
Name suffix
1st Baron Charlemont
Name prefix
Capt. Sir
Birth December 1565 45
Baptism 2 December 1565
Birth of a brotherThomas Caulfeild
1567 (Age 13 months)
Baptism of a brotherThomas Caulfeild
1 September 1567 (Age 21 months)
Birth of a sisterHester Caulfeild
1568 (Age 2 years)
Baptism of a sisterHester Caulfeild
12 September 1568 (Age 2 years)
Death of a fatherAlexander Caulfeild or Calfhill
31 March 1581 (Age 15 years)
Marriage of a parentThomas StauntonAnne UnknownView this family
27 May 1584 (Age 18 years)
Death of a brotherGeorge Caulfeild
October 1603 (Age 37 years)
Burial of a brotherGeorge Caulfeild
15 October 1603 (Age 37 years)
Death of a brotherThomas Caulfeild
1610 (Age 44 years)

Death 17 August 1627 (Age 61 years)
Burial 21 September 1627 (35 days after death)
Family with parents - View this family
father
mother
Marriage: about 1544
2 years
elder brother
9 years
elder sister
2 years
elder sister
3 years
elder brother
2 years
elder sister
2 years
elder sister
4 years
elder brother
Alexander Caulfeild
Birth: 1561 41Great Milton Manor, Oxfordshire
Death: 1561Great Milton Manor, Oxfordshire
3 years
elder sister
2 years
elder brother
2 years
himself
Capt. Sir Toby Caulfeild 1st Baron CharlemontToby Caulfeild
Birth: December 1565 45Great Milton Manor, Oxfordshire
Death: 17 August 1627Hoggen Green, Dublin
2 years
younger brother
2 years
younger sister
Mother’s family with Thomas Staunton - View this family
step-father
mother
Marriage: 27 May 1584Oswestry, Shropshire

Shared note

Baptised at Great Milton, Oxfordshire, as "Toby, son of Alexander Calfehill". Raised at Great Milton Manor until at least 1580.

Served under Sir Martin Frobisher at the repulse of the Spanish Armada in 1588 and also in the Azores against the Spanish treasure ships in 1591. Served under Sir Francis Vere against the French in France and Flanders, and wounded at the siege of Dreux, west of Paris, in 1593. Was with Sir Walter Raleigh on the expedition to discover Guiana in 1595. Was with the Earl of Essex at the capture of Cadiz on 21 June 1596. Served under Lord Thomas Howard, Earl of Suffolk, against the fleet gathered off Spain for a descent on Ireland in 1597. Served under Sir Thomas Burrows against the Spanish. Obtained a company of 150 Low Countries veterans, and under Sir Richard Moryson's regiment went to Ireland with the newly appointed Lord Deputy, the Earl of Essex, in 1599 as part of the unsuccessful expedition to suppress the Earl of Tyrone. When Essex left Ireland in 1599 he was stationed at Newry with 150 men. He served under Charles Blount, Lord Mountjoy, at the battle of Carlingford in November 1600, and then garrisoned at Dundalk with 150 men. Took part in the defeat of the Spanish and the capture of the town of Kinsale under Lord Mountjoy in October 1601, where he commanded a regiment.

In early 1602 Mountjoy, Queen Elizabeth's new Lord Deputy of Ireland, was charged with the reduction of Hugh O'Neill, the rebellious Earl of Tyrone, who was holding out in his castle at Dungannon. Blount's method was to surround O'Neill's territory with a ring of forts, hemming in central Ulster from Armagh to Donegal. On the south-eastern border the River Blackwater formed a natural boundary and it was here that Mountjoy built a fort guarding the bridge on the road from Armagh to Dungannon, facing across the river towards O'Neill, and called it 'Charlemont', after his own christian name and the first half of his title. In this fort in June 1602 he placed Captain Toby Caulfeild with 150 men.

In 1603 O'Neill finally submitted, King James 1st succeeded to the throne and Toby was Knighted at Christ Church, Dublin, on 25 July 1603 by Lord Deputy Carey. He was created a Privy Councillor and Governor of Fort Charlemont, and with large grants of land following. It was said that Toby conspired with O'Neill's wife during 1606, and in 1607 O'Neill eventually fled to the continent in the 'flight of the earls'. Sir Toby was given custody of O'Neill's son Con, and made receiver of rents on the Earl's vast estates from 1607 to 1610, when the job was given out to undertakers. He was paid £100 per year for this rent collection until 1610, when he was granted £400 'in harps' for 3 years, possibly as compensation. The account of his collection of the Earl's rents (State Papers, Irish Series, 1608-1610 pp532-546) is a document of great interest for the light which it casts on the land system of Ireland of this particular time. On the division of the Earl's estate Sir Toby received, by a grant dated 20th January 1610, as an undertaker 1000 acres of O'Donnelly land around Ballydonnelly in the Barony of Dungannon in South Tyrone, as part of the Plantation of Ulster.

As part of the Orders and Conditions to be observed by undertakers of escheated lands, he was obliged to build within two years of his Letters Patent a strong court or 'bawn'. Here he was to have ready a convenient store of arms with which to supply a force of able men for defence purposes, who were to be mustered and inspected half-yearly, and to build a town nearby for the protection of his tenants. He selected the site of the old Irish fort, and in 1612 set about the construction of a large house there which he called Castle Caulfeild, with a village which he named similarly. The house was completed around 1619, and featured in Pynnar's survey of that year. A three storeyed U shaped structure with basement. The family arms are let into the wall over the gatehouse entrance. The village is recorded in the survey as having 15 families providing 20 men at arms. Sir Toby does not seem to have lived there, but his nephew Sir William took an ongoing interest after his succession in 1627 and built a large gatehouse with towers before his death in 1640. Described as "the fairest house in all these parts", the castle was made over to a tenant in whose hands it was when it was taken and burnt during the 1641 uprising by Patrick Modder O'Donnelly ('the gloomy'). The castle was patched up and lived in by the family after 1663, but after being again burnt in 1690 became uninhabitable and has been a ruin since. Signs of burning can still be seen on the walls. In 1936 the 8th Viscount handed over the castle to the government as a national monument.

Some time before 1619 Sir Toby had also purchased from Sir Francis Blundell 1500 acres of former O'Neill land at Camlough in South Armagh, and built a fortified bawn there in the townland of Maghernahely. The manor comprised the 'ten towns of Camlough', the tythes of which formed part of the endowment of the ancient nunnery of Killevy. Sold in 1863 to a Mr J G Richardson. He also acquired the very extensive grange lands of the Abbey of St Peter and St Paul in and around Armagh, and the Abbey site in Armagh city became later known as 'Lord Charlemont's Liberty'.

As part of the conditions of his holding Fort Charlemont he rebuilt the structure, which was completed by 1611. In 1608 he was created Seneschal or Governor of Counties Armagh and Tyrone, and granted a lease of Fort Charlemont for 21 years, with 300 acres attached. From 1613 to 1615 he sat in the Irish Parliament as MP for Charlemont, one of a large number created by Sir Arthur Chichester, President of Ulster, for the express purpose of furnishing Protestant Burgesses, and was also MP for Armagh in 1613. He was appointed a Privy Councillor on 17 April 1613, and in the same year chosen as Knight of the Shire for Armagh. On 19 February 1615 he was created Master of the Ordnance by Sir Oliver St John. On 10 May 1615 he was appointed a member of the council for the provinces of Munster, and the next year joined in commission with Lord Deputy St John and others for the parcelling out of the escheated lands in Ulster, to such British undertakers as were named in the several tables of assignation. In this employment King James I found him so faithful, diligent and prudent that his majesty deemed him highly deserving the peerage of Ireland. Accordingly, in consideration of his long and valuable services to the crown, recorded in detail in the patent (State Papers, Irish Series, 1615-1625 p309), on 22 December 1620 he was created Lord Caulfeild, 1st Baron of Charlemont, and as he was unmarried the remainder of the title to pass to his nephew Sir William Caulfeild, Knt., son of his elder brother George who had died in 1603.

In 1622 his grants of land were made absolute forever, and in 1623 Fort Charlemont was made over to him by King James as an inheritance. He was authorised to hold a Court of Pie Poudre at Charlemont, and he paid £400 per year for the privilege of farming out King James' penalty on the Irish custom of attaching the plough to the beast's tail. Between 1623 and 1624 he rebuilt the Fort with a new bayed central block, which survived intact until being burnt in July 1919. In 1624 Pynnar published a report on the state of the Forts in Ireland, in which a description of the new Fort is included. On 17 August 1627 he died at his house on College Green (then called Hoggen Green), Dublin, and on 21 September that year was buried in Christ Church Cathedral there. He was almost 62. Between 1603 and 1627, Sir Toby is said to have acquired 25,000 acres of land in Counties Armagh, Tyrone, Monaghan, Cavan, Fermanagh, Donegal, Derry, and Louth. His estates contained every variety of landed property. It was said that one could walk from Slieve Gullion, on the north-west corner of Lough Neagh, to Slieve Gallion on the fringes of the Pale, a distance of 45 miles without stepping off Caulfeild land. His rental income was considerable, and he was able to leave a substancial inheritance to his 40 year old nephew. Royal Letters dated 16 July 1622 state that it was intended that an Earldom be conferred on Sir Toby, and these are referred to in the preamble to the creation of the Earldom in 1763.

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Media objectCapt. Sir Toby Caulfeild 1st Baron CharlemontCapt. Sir Toby Caulfeild 1st Baron Charlemont
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Image dimensions: 509 × 645 pixels
File size: 237 KB
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